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What is Bootstrap and How Do I Use It?

What is Bootstrap and How Do I Use It?

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If you have any sort of interest in web development, you’ve likely heard of Bootstrap. According to the official website, Bootstrap is the most popular HTML, CSS, and JS framework for developing responsive, mobile first projects on the web. Sounds great! Now how do I use it?

It would be easy to send you over to their Getting Started page and call it a day. Their setup guide is indeed a host of useful information – links to CDNs, explanations on how to install with Bower, npm, and Composer, information on integration with Autoprefixer and LESS, a bunch of templates, licenses, and translations – but it is certainly not a step by step guide to getting started (which very well might be in the spirit of autodidactism).

When I discovered Bootstrap a few years ago, responsive design was still gaining in popularity, and not necessarily the expected norm. Having only ever made websites from scratch, I was a little confused about the entire concept of a framework. I’d imagine it’s even more confusing for beginners who are now expected to learn responsive design concepts and Bootstrap and JavaScript libraries, in addition to HTML, CSS and JS.

This guide is meant as a first look into Bootstrap for beginners, so won’t be going into LESS and Sass integration, which are more intermediate/advanced concepts. While it’s written for the current, stable version Bootstrap 3, the concepts will remain the same for future versions.

Goals

  • Learn what a front-end framework is and how it can be useful
  • Understand how to properly include Bootstrap’s CSS and JavaScript and begin customizing

Prerequities

  • Basic knowledge and understanding of HTML and CSS

What is Bootstrap?

Bootstrap can be boiled down to three main files:

Additionally, Bootstrap requires jQuery to function. jQuery is an extremely popular and widely used JavaScript library, that both simplifies and adds cross browser compatibility to JavaScript.

Everything else you might happen across while studying the Bootstrap documentation – Grunt, Gulp, Sass, LESS, bower, npm, etc – is not necessary to get started with Bootstrap. These are task runners, preprocessors, installation aids, and package managers, so don’t be discouraged if you don’t know how to use any of them yet.

Why is a framework important? Do I need to use one?

You absolutely don’t need to use a framework – I recently wrote an article called You Don’t Need a Framework: Understanding the Fundamentals of Responsive Design, which I would recommend reading if you want to learn more about responsive design. However, frameworks are very popular and have many benefits, so it’s important to learn how to work with them.

Some of the ways that frameworks can help you:

  • Prevent repetition between projects
  • Utilize responsive design to allow your website to adapt to various screen sizes – mobile, desktop, and everything in between
  • Add consistency to design and code between projects and between developers
  • Quickly and easily prototype new designs
  • Ensure cross-browser compatibility

Generally, every web project you work on will need to be responsive and work properly on all the major browsers, and likely have some fallbacks for older browsers. Bootstrap has a huge open source community that works on covering this so you don’t have to. Additionally, when multiple developers all know the same system, they can work in better harmony – and it also makes it easier for newcomers on a project to get up to speed.

The grid is probably one of the most essential aspects of the framework. It’s the basis on which the entire layout is created. Beyond that, Bootstrap’s core CSS will also add helpful styling to forms, tables, buttons, lists, and images, as well as fully functioning navigation bars, while the core JavaScript will add helpful code for creating modals, carousels, alerts, popups, dropdowns, and accordions.

Let’s begin!

Building a Basic Template with Bootstrap

Bootstrap comes with a few very simple examples to start from, but it’s just as easy to start from “scratch”, so that’s what we’ll do. First, I’ll use only Bootstrap to lay out the foundation, then we’ll add our own custom style on top to make something fun and trendy.

Step one is to download Bootstrap. The zip file will come with css, fonts, and js directories. Unzip that and save the files in some directory. Bootstrap doesn’t come with any HTML, but they have a “Hello, World!” page to start on the documentation, so we’ll use that as index.html.

Hello, World!

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
    <title>Bootstrap 101 Template</title>
    <link href="css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
    <!--[if lt IE 9]>
      <script src="https://oss.maxcdn.com/html5shiv/3.7.2/html5shiv.min.js"></script>
      <script src="https://oss.maxcdn.com/respond/1.4.2/respond.min.js"></script>
    <![endif]-->
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Hello, world!</h1>

    <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.3/jquery.min.js"></script>
    <script src="js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>
  </body>
</html>

Easy enough to start. We have our basic doctype, html, head and body tags. The meta name="viewport" tag is particularly important for responsive design – it ensures that your website has a 1:1 ratio with the viewport (screen size).

Beyond that, we’re just adding Bootstrap core CSS in the <head>

<link href="css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet">

jQuery via Google CDN before the closing </body> tag…

<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.3/jquery.min.js"></script>

and Bootstrap core JavaScript.

<script src="js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>

Bootstrap JavaScript and custom JavaScript must go below jQuery to function! Additionally, we can link to jQuery via Google’s URL because it reduces load on our live server, but you can download it if you want to work locally.

Well, that’s all you need to get started with Bootstrap! Let’s check out our awesome new site.

…great!

Navigation Bar

Although we have nothing, in no time at all we can get copying and pasting from the docs and have a nice, functioning website. First and foremost, we add in the quintessential Bootstrap top navigation bar. I made a simplified version of their navbar example. Place this code right below your opening <body> tag.

<nav class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-static-top">
	<div class="container">
		<div class="navbar-header">
			<button type="button" class="navbar-toggle collapsed" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#bs-example-navbar-collapse-1" aria-expanded="false">
				<span class="sr-only">Toggle navigation</span>
				<span class="icon-bar"></span>
				<span class="icon-bar"></span>
				<span class="icon-bar"></span>
			</button>
			<a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Balance Web Development</a>
		</div>
		<div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="bs-example-navbar-collapse-1">
			<ul class="nav navbar-nav navbar-right">
				<li><a href="#">About</a></li>
				<li class="dropdown">
					<a href="#" class="dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown" role="button" aria-haspopup="true" aria-expanded="false">Services<span class="caret"></span></a>
					<ul class="dropdown-menu">
						<li><a href="#">Design</a></li>
						<li><a href="#">Development</a></li>
						<li><a href="#">Consulting</a></li>
					</ul>
				</li>
				<li><a href="#">Contact</a></li>
			</ul>
		</div>
	</div>
</nav>

It seems like a confusing mess, but it’s not so complicated. In the first line, I’m defining the entire bar as a navbar, choosing a dark color scheme with navbar-inverse, and electing to use navbar-static-top, as opposed to a fixed (sticky) header.

<nav class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-static-top">

A container sets a max-width on the content within your full-width navbar.

<div class="container">

The navbar-header class contains the “brand” information, where you can put your logo or company name. We’re making a website for fictional tech company Balance Web Development (well, it’s better than their old site!).

The button is hidden on desktop, and becomes a dropdown hamburger menu on mobile (each <span class="icon-bar"> is a line in the hamburger).

<div class="navbar-header">
	<button type="button" class="navbar-toggle collapsed" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#bs-example-navbar-collapse-1" aria-expanded="false">
		<span class="sr-only">Toggle navigation</span>
		<span class="icon-bar"></span>
		<span class="icon-bar"></span>
		<span class="icon-bar"></span>
	</button>
	<a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Balance Web Development</a>
</div>

The rest of the code is a right-aligned unordered list that servers as both our desktop and mobile menu.

Jumbotron Header

I decided I want one of those big, space-wasting, attention-grabbing headers, which is called a jumbotron in Bootstrap terms. Not much to see here, just a jumbotron with a container and some copy.

<div class="jumbotron">
	<div class="container">
		<h1>Ready. Set. Code.</h1>
		<p>Are you ready to boilerstrap your cross-compatible buzzword? We're Sassy, flat and semantic, so what are you waiting for?</p>
		<br>
		<p><a class="btn btn-primary btn-lg" href="#" role="button">Download Free Trial »</a> <a class="btn btn-primary btn-lg" href="#" role="button">Learn more »</a></p>
	</div>
</div>

There’s some extra space we don’t want, but I want to see how far Bootstrap can get us without overriding styles. As you can see, we already have a pretty nice, adaptable layout without having written a single line of CSS.

Grid

The last thing I’ll do is add in some main content, which will be be in the form of a grid. Grids are rows…

<div class="row">
</div>

that contain columns.

<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-6"></div>
  <div class="col-md-6"></div>
</div>

Bootstrap works on a 12-column system, so as long as you add up to 12, you’re golden. The above example will contain two 50% width columns (6/12), which will stack on mobile and become 100% width.

<div class="container">
	<div class="row">
		<div class="col-md-4">
			<span class="glyphicon glyphicon-cloud" aria-hidden="true"></span>
			<h3>Cloud Computable</h3>
			<p>Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh.</p>
		</div>
		<div class="col-md-4">
			<span class="glyphicon glyphicon-floppy-disk" aria-hidden="true"></span>
			<h3>Backwards Compatible</h3>
			<p>Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod. Donec sed odio dui. Lorem ipsum dolor.</p>
		</div>
		<div class="col-md-4">
			<span class="glyphicon glyphicon-console" aria-hidden="true"></span>
			<h3>GUI Free</h3>
			<p>Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper. Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh.</p>
		</div>
	</div>
</div>

Here you can see I have three four-of-twelve columns, and as 3 x 4 = 12, everything works out.

Icons

I’ve also added in a few glyphicons for decoration. Glyphicons is the built-in icon set that comes with Bootstrap. If you don’t load your fonts, or if you move them to a different directory, these icons won’t work.

<span class="glyphicon glyphicon-floppy-disk" aria-hidden="true"></span>

Using a glyphicon will always be that same code, and only the glyphicon-floppy-disk class will change.

I am now satisfied with the foundation of my layout.

Adding Custom Styles to Bootstrap

Not bad for getting this far without touching a line of style. It’s professional, responsive, and browser friendly. It’s definitely not creative or unique, though. After laying down a foundation, you’ll want to add your own personal design.

If you know LESS or Sass, you can play around in Bootstrap’s extensive customization area and download your own version of Bootstrap. We happen to be using “vanilla CSS”, which is CSS without a preprocessor. Fortunately, you can just add an additional stylesheet below Bootstrap’s core

Don’t modify the Bootstrap core – you’re much better off overriding the existing styles.

<link href="css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
<link href="css/custom.css" rel="stylesheet">
<link href='https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Montserrat:400,700' rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>

I added a link to a Google font called Montserrat. If you’ve never used a Google Font before, all you have to do is add the font stylesheet to your head and change the font-family of your desired element.

Now we finally begin styling. In just a few minutes, I’ll be able to transform my boring, generic Bootstrap layout into a fun, flat layout. First, I’m going to get rid of that pesky space between the navbar and the jumbotron.

.navbar {
	margin-bottom: 0;
}

A few simple styles to the main tags. I’m loading in the Montserrat font on the entire page, I’ve made the headers bold, and I’ve made the background dark and the text light.

body {
	background: #3E4649;
	color: #f7f7f7;
	font-family: 'Montserrat', sans-serif;
}
h1,
h2 {
	font-weight: bold;
}
p {
	font-size: 16px;
	color: #cdcdcd;
}

I’m going to make the jumbotron green and centered.

.jumbotron {
	background: #27A967;
	color: white;
	text-align: center;
}
.jumbotron p {
	color: white;
	font-size: 26px;
}

I’m going to turn the buttons into “ghost buttons”, which are buttons that are transparent with a border. I’m also adding a margin so they’ll stack properly on mobile.

.btn-primary {
	color: #fff;
	background-color: transparent;
	border-color: white;
	margin-bottom: 5px;
}
.btn-primary:hover {
	color: #27A967;
	background-color: white;
	border-color: white;
}

I’m going to make the navbar a different shade of dark, make the links lighter, and change the background color on hover.

.navbar-inverse {
	background: #2E2F31;
	border: 0;
}
.navbar-inverse .navbar-nav li a {
	color: #f7f7f7;
	font-size: 16px;
}
.navbar-inverse .navbar-nav li a:hover {
	background: #27A967;
}

The dropdown menu has its own classes, so I’m also going to change the background color on these and add a little padding.

.dropdown-menu {
	background: #2E2F31;
	border-radius: 0;
	border: 0;
}
.dropdown-menu li a {
	padding: 10px;
}
.navbar-inverse .navbar-nav .dropdown-menu li a:hover {
	background: #2C463C;
}

Back in my HTML, I’m going to wrap a section tag around my grid, and call it call-to-action. I’m also going to create a glyphicon-large class and add it to each icon span.

<section class="call-to-action">
<!-- .rows and .columns -->
  <span class="glyphicon glyphicon-cloud glyphicon-large" aria-hidden="true"></span>
<!-- /.rows and .columns -->
</section>

The final touches to my code are going to be centering the bottom call-out, adding margin-bottom to the p tags so they stack properly on mobile, and making my glyphicons bigger.

.call-to-action {
	text-align: center;
}
.call-to-action p {
	margin-bottom: 30px;
	font-family: sans-serif;
}
.glyphicon-large {
	font-size: 100px;
}

With one small page worth of code, I’ve completely transformed my layout. From here, you can be much more creative.

Of course, I also put the demo up as a Codepen.

See the Pen Start Bootstrap by Tania (@taniarascia) on CodePen.

Conclusion

Hopefully you learned a bit about Bootstrap and frameworks from this tutorial. This is hardly scratching the surface of what Bootstrap is capable of – but you can take it from here. The documentation is enormous, and if ever you can’t figure out how to do something, chances are a quick Google search will point you in the right direction.

I would encourage you play around and make your own framework for personal projects to aid in your understanding of responsive design.

Thank you for reading! I'm Tania Rascia, and I write no-nonsense guides for designers and developers. If my content has been valuable to you, please help me keep the site ad-free and continuously updated with quality tutorials and material by making a donation. Any amount helps and is greatly appreciated! Otherwise, let me know any ideas you have on a course you'd be eager to see.

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Discussion

  • Nihar says:

    Great Post,Tania
    Thanks a lot it helped me a lot
    I am also going to share it to my friends and over my social media.
    Also,
    Hackr.io is a great platform to find and share the best tutorials and they have a specific page for bootstrap

    This might be useful to your readers: https://hackr.io/tutorials/learn-bootstrap

  • Elvis says:

    I am glad i saw this post. Thanks for the tips.

  • Elvis says:

    I am glad i saw this post. Thanks for the tips.

  • Anshuman Srivastava says:

    Great work!!

  • Tressa Fox says:

    I need a very flexible theme for a client who needs to build/edit a site that does not require coding experience of its editor. I am currently looking at Envato’s “Avada Classic”.

    How does Bootstrap differ from using a theme like Avada Classic? My client (at the University of Toronto) uses a Bootstrap theme, but will not offer support. If I go with Bootstrap, who offers support? It appears that Bootstrap is more for developers than novices.

    I need to make a WordPress theme desision asap.

    • Tania says:

      Tressa, Bootstrap is just a way to style a site. You have to know how to use CSS and HTML to use it still. If you don’t, whether you download a theme that uses Bootstrap or not doesn’t make a difference to you. Bootstrap is not a company and doesn’t offer any support – that would be on the individual theme developer’s end.

  • Himanshu Singh says:

    very helpful . Thanks!!

  • Ameer Qureshi says:

    It is really helpful. Great and many thanks. xxx

  • Poorna Weerasekara says:

    great !!! many Thanks!

  • Jamie says:

    Hot damn, thank you. I’ve been debating whether or not I should use bootstrap but this just sold it to me. Think I’m going to have a gander at your other post on not using a framework though. Your tutorials are fantastic.

  • Anonymous says:

    awesome

  • Superkai says:

    Love what you put out. I’ve followed along with some of your other tutorials and you explain things really well. However, I don’t see how you actually made the hamburger work. My finished page looks like your finished page in the last picture, yet on the codepen example the hamburger is there and when you click it you get a functioning menu. I copied and pasted your code to see if I missed something, but it’s exactly the same. I don’t see any code that would enable the functionality, just that we have the icon-bars. How did you get this to work?

  • Shane says:

    This was extremely helpful, thank you! They need to have this on the official site!

  • Sharky says:

    Super helpful!

  • Arash says:

    Wonderful! So easily explained and into small chunks which makes it so accessible and easy to understand how and why things are happening! Thank you! Will def. check out this page more often.

  • Hector_Kanger says:

    Great tutorial for a beginner! Totally consistent with the title. I will definitely check in more often to see more useful stuff.

  • Angelo says:

    I copied the Hallo World and Navigation Barcode into Notepad++, saved it as html. However, when I launched it in Firefox or IE the following is shown on my desk top (the frame around Toggle navigation and bullets are shown also). Why?

    Toggle avication Balance Web Development

    About
    Services
    Design
    Development
    Consulting
    Contact

    Hello, world!

    • Avery says:

      Hi Angelo,

      I’m sure this is too late, but I had the same thing happen. I added the downloaded folders from Bootstrap into the same folder as my index.html file and then it worked. So, the Bootstrap folder was called bootstrap-3.3.7-dist, and the folders included were called, css, fonts and js. This was just a generic Start Here sort of folder that I downloaded, as it was recommended for beginners.

      All the best,
      Avery

  • Anonymous says:

    l;ll;lg

  • Marina says:

    This is totally awesome. Thank you so much for the guide, I didn’t think it was that simple, but now I see it really is!

  • DaliborN says:

    Super, super, super.

    This was so helpful. Excellent content, composition, readability.

  • Rick says:

    Its Really Great article for beginner like me.Before read this Article i was 0 about bootstrap but now i got clear about many functionalities. Really Easy to Understand.

  • Grahame says:

    FINALLY!!! THIS is the article I’ve been looking for for weeks. Thank you so much for taking the time to write about this.

    I am the design team at a small software firm, and my boss has been encouraging me to start learning more current HTML/CSS/Bootstrap stuff (seeing as how, until very recently, my experience writing code was limited to HTML emails with inline styles, the same stuff I learned 10 years ago at my first design job). This way I can personally design and develop our corporate websites and all of that corporate communication stuff on my own without needing to rely on our developers, all of whom are neck-deep in billable work.

    Seeing as how I’ve pretty much waded into these waters on my own, teaching myself through trial and error, it’s really bloody overwhelming to know only VERY basic HTML and then walk into a world where everyone pretty much assumes that you know exactly what they’re talking about. There’s so much information out there that it’s massively confusing and overwhelming to try and sort out one from the other.

    So. Thank you for starting at the beginning, for not making assumptions about what we know or don’t know, and for explaining all this stuff in simple terms. To quote Macklemore, “this is f***ing awesommmme.” 😀

  • DJ says:

    I just finished up with your getting-started-with-aws-setting-up-a-virtual-server article, which was very well written and helpful, is there a good way to integrate the bootstrap framework with my ec2 instance?

  • Sabrina says:

    Thank you so much for this! I’m just completing a course in Web Development and sometimes find it lacking some basic introductions to certain topics description. This helped me understand the whole concept of Bootstrap and the structure of the code. Thanks a lot! 🙂

  • Shahram says:

    This was so helpful. I always struggled finding a simple tutorial to start with bootstrap. This was simple yet amazing.

  • Vijay says:

    This is really helpful. I am a 0 in Bootstrap and CSS before I started this. I was struggling a lot. This page really helped me a lot. I know something now.

  • jeddy3 says:

    Thanks very much for writing this. It has truly been an eye opener for me.

  • Bouz says:

    I somehow ended up on your site, and I’m glad I did.

    I’ve been looking around for a slightly detailed introduction to Bootstrap and this was just the perfect post.

    And not only was this post helpful, but I found many more of your posts great. Thank you.

  • uddipta says:

    awesome! i have many years of experience in this field,but writing has never been so lucid. your vivid writing has inspired me a lot to make my blogs (comblogpoint.wordpress.com)more clear …
    thanks
    your _writing_style_fan

  • pramila says:

    awesome

  • Raghav Sharma says:

    Completely new to Bootstrap and it feels this article just gave me a real insight about bs.
    Really powerful and concise description.
    Thank You

  • Glen says:

    Really helped a lot. Finally understood what Bootstrap is for and how it works. Thank you 🙂

  • Jarvis says:

    Awesome tutorial, 10/10 easily

  • Nick says:

    I ran into an error because I did not have my bootstrap java and bootstrap css linked to my local folder. I swapped out your link for a link to the CDN and then it worked fine 🙂

  • Nick says:

    I am having an issue when trying to duplicate your steps in Brackets (html text editor). My navbar doesn’t look right (text appears but no colors). For reference, I’m also using google chrome. Should this be an issue?

    I’m sorry for the noob questions, I just really can’t figure this out haha.

  • mayur says:

    verry nice!!!!! keep it up thank U -)

  • Kravica says:

    Great article. The best on Bootstrap intro I’ve found yet.

  • Chris Brown says:

    This is amazing – the best tutorial I’ve ever read. Thanks so much

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My tutorials, guides, and articles for web designers, developers, and autodidacts, sent out once a month or so. No bullshit, ads, or tricks.